This is how we develop the most important crude oil transportation operation in Colombia. It starts in the plains savannas of Casanare and ends in the Gulf of Morrosquillo, in Sucre.
The main oil fields in Colombia are located in the departments of Meta, Casanare, Arauca, Santander and Huila, representing 86.6% of total oil production, according to the report of Campetrol.
The production of Meta (351.3 Kbdp) represents a 50.6% share of the production of these five departments, followed by Casanare with 124.9 Kbdp.
It all begins at the Cusiana, and El Porvenir stations in Casanare, where we receive crude oil from customers that operate in Meta and Casanare.
In these two stations we also receive crude oil from smaller pipelines such as ODL and Araguaney-Cusiana.
The Cusiana unloader offers the service of unloading tank cars that come with the production of smaller wells.
Our operation includes a variety of crude oil qualities: light, medium and heavy, which are stored in their respective tanks and in several stations.
The density of crude oil is designated by this term API (American Petroleum Institute). Through this classification it is defined what type of derivatives can be extracted from crude oil. To better understand the calculation of crude oil density, use the density of water as a reference, which is 1,000 kg/m3.
This is which has an API value above 31.1 º, or in other words, a density of less than 870 kg/m3.
It has an API value between 31.1º and 23.3º, or in other words, a density between 870 and 920 kg/m3
This is which has an API value of between 23.3º and 10º, or in other words, a density of between 920 and 999 kg/m3. It remains with less density than water, so it floats.
It is only with more density than water, so it does not float. It has an API of less than 10º, which means that its density is greater than 1,000 kg/m3.
With the sufficient volume, it is formed into batches that are scheduled for daily delivery.
The potholes are driven by a pumping system at each station.
From the Cusiana and El Porvenir stations, the crude oil departs passing through the Páez, Miraflores, and La Belleza stations, at 2,100 m.a.s.l., the highest point of the pipeline.
When the bumps arrive at La Belleza station, it is necessary to regulate the pressure since the crude oil descends from 2.100 m.a.s.l. to 145 m.a.s.l. at Vasconia station.
At the Vasconia station, the crude is distributed depending on the client's needs. One portion is delivered to the Oleoducto de Colombia (ODC), another to the Barrancabermeja refinery and the other portion continues to the Coveñas station for export in ships.
The Coveñas station receives all the crude oil transported by the pipeline and stores them in their respective tanks.
It is assembled the volume required for export according to the vessel for loading and a schedule is made depending on the windows of the vessels.
It dispatches export crude oil to the TLU2 (Tanker loading unit), located offshore.
Capacity: 500,000 barrels.
Designed for the dimensions
of the Panama Canal
Capacity: 700,000 barrels.
Capacity: 1 million of barrels.
(Very Large Crude Carrier)
Capacity: 2 million barrels.
In 1996 ANI and Ocensa signed a contract through which the offshore oil terminal was built and continues in operation, providing crude oil loading services for export.
Ocensa’s pipeline layout begins at the Cupiagua station, 15 minutes from the municipality of Aguazul, Casanare. Here arrives the production of crude oil from the Cupiagua field that is pumped to the Cusiana station.
Located in Tauramena, the station provides 50% of the volumes transported by the entire pipeline. It has an infrastructure which allows it to receive crude oil production from the following fields: Cusiana, Cupiagua, ODL and Araguaney. It has a tank car unloading station with a capacity to receive 80 KBPD that operates 24 hours a day and a storage system of 1,150,000 barrels.
It is the third station of the Ocensa pipeline and with it begins the upstream of the line through the Eastern Cordillera. Its operation is focused on the reception, storage, and delivery of several types of crude oil. It has a storage capacity of 260,000 barrels.
It is a station created with the P-135 project (Volume Increase). It receives crude oil arriving from El Porvenir station and is re-pumped to Miraflores station at 1,500 m.a.s.l. It works with 100% electric equipment and, during operation, it generates a greater increase in transported volumes.
It is considered a booster or re-pumping station that receives crude oil from the El Porvenir or Paez stations and re-pumps it to climb up a slope of up to 3,000 m.a.s.l., over the Eastern Cordillera and arrive at the La Belleza station.
An operation as extensive as that of our pipeline needs to have a number of bases in some sections to allow line maintenance, right-of-way intervention and timely reaction to a possible emergency.
Given its strategic location in the Eastern Cordillera and in the plateau of Cundiboyan, Soracá, a municipality of just 6,000 inhabitants, with an agricultural tradition and only a 14-minute drive from Tunja, is our base in Boyaca to carry out work and, in case of emergency, access any of the pipeline sites in less than 12 hours.
Unlike the existing stations in Casanare and Boyaca, La Belleza is a way station, not a process station. Here, the pressure of the crude oil is reduced so it can flow down 2,300 meters to the Vasconia station. Thus, risks caused by pressure are minimized.
This station is in a strategic location in Magdalena Medio, an area with one of the most important energy hubs in the country. Likewise, it is also the location of many of the most important systems in the crude oil transportation business.
An operation as extensive as that of our pipeline needs to have a number of bases in some sections to allow line maintenance, right-of-way intervention and timely reaction to a possible emergency. Located in the municipality of Puerto Berrio, on the Magdalena river and on the borders of Antioquia and Santander, the base facilitates the execution of works and the arrival, in case of emergency, to any place along the pipeline in less than 12 hours. Located 40 km to the south of Puerto Berrio, on the Magdalena river, is located Puerto Serviez, a place where the pipeline crosses under the river until it arrives at the Chiquillo station in Remedios, Antioquia.
Chiquillo is a crude oil re-pumping station, which was part of the Expansion of Power Capacity Project 135 through which it expanded the pipeline’s shipping capacity. As it is a re-pumping station, it does not have storage tanks.
Located in the municipality of Caucasia, the station is in charge of re-pumping the crude coming from the Vasconia station, increasing the oil flow in segment III, which can move from 11,000 to 15,000 barrels per hour. In addition, it serves as an intermediate base to prepare for contingencies and as an emergency response system.
It is an intermediate re-pumping station between the stations Caucasia, in Antioquia, and Coveñas, in Sucre. Along with the stations of Paez and Chiquillo, La Granjita was part of the Power Capacity Expansion Project 135 which expanded the pipeline’s transmission capacity.
In Coveñas the 836 kilometers of the subway pipeline are finished and begins the 12 kilometers of the submarine pipeline. The terminal receives all transported volumes and begins the operation of loading the oil tankers for the export of crude oil. It can store 2,800,000 barrels of crude oil of different qualities and its maximum pumping capacity reaches 60 barrels per hour to the TLU2 - tanker loading unit.
The tanker loading unit (TLU-2) or monobuoy is located 12 kilometers from the Coveñas Maritime Terminal. This is where the crude oil is transferred from the pipeline to the oil tankers and it also serves as anchorage for the vessels arriving at the terminal. Half of the monobuoy is static, it remains anchored to land, and the other half, which is observed over the sea, rotates 360 degrees, so that the tankers, already moored, have freedom of movement according to the meteorological and marine conditions. The current monobuoy is new and began its operations in April 2021. It replaced the previous TLU-2, which had 24 years of service.
836 kilometers of underground pipeline from Cupiagua station, in Casanare, to Coveñas station, in Sucre.
12 kilometers of submarine pipeline for loading of offshore vessels.
Throughout the route of the pipeline we are involved with 6 departments and 45 municipalities.