At the Coveñas station in the Gulf of Morrosquillo, all transported volumes are received. This is the end of the onshore pipeline and the beginning of the offshore operation.
Composed of sub-regions Morrosquillo, Sabanas, Montes de María, San Jorge and La Mojana, Sucre is the last department through which our pipeline crosses by land. Its economic activity is mainly driven by livestock and tourism. It is warm, with temperatures between 27° C. and 30° C., with an average altitude of 31 m.a.s.l. and an extension of 10,670 Km2 bordering the departments of Bolívar, Antioquia, and Córdoba.
The Gulf of Morrosquillo is a tourist attraction recognized for its white sands and its peaceful coastal waters overlooking the Caribbean Sea. The cumbias, the porros, and the vallenato rhythms of Sucre's subregions such as La Mojana have been danced all over Colombia and it has Los Corraleros de Majagual, representatives of the folklore of Sucre. Within Sucre's calendar of celebrations there are two must-see events: the Corralejas of Sincelejo and the Sabanero Accordion Festival of Sincelejo.
To reach the department of Sucre and specifically the Coveñas terminal, is to arrive at the end of the 836 kilometers of subway pipeline that began with the Cusiana station, at Casanare. At this point it receives all the volumes transported by the pipeline and starts the underwater operation located 12 kilometers offshore and through which oil tankers are loaded for export.
Characteristics of the relief and geographic features in the area of the department of Córdoba through which the oil pipeline crosses and approximate location of TL2.
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StretchLa Granjita - Coveñas
StretchCoveñas - TLU2
The department is divided into five sub-regions and each has its own ecosystems. In the Gulf of Morrosquillo are the 112 linear kilometers of coastline that the department has. Over there, there is a wealth of mangroves, seagrasses, corals and beaches, which are combined with the tropical dry forest. Above all, the mangrove forest is of enormous importance, since most oxygen is produced there and it is the niche for native species. The mangroves of Sucre represent 11.7% of the mangrove forest of the Colombian Caribbean Coast.
In the sub-region of Montes de María, the mountains of the tropical dry forest stand out, where fog takes over the slopes in the morning and at dusk. This contrasts with the savannahs, where the landscape of the savannahs of the hills, mountains and plains climb only up to 185 m. a. s. l.
The savannas are extended to the San Jorge sub-region, until it reaches the meadows of San Jorge River where most of the department's marshes are located. Finally, we reach La Mojana, an area that floods depending on the alluvial currents of the Magdalena, Cauca and San Jorge rivers. This is the place from its source of a large number of swamps, brooks and streams.
Although the San Jorge River is born in the Nudo de Paramillo, in Antioquia, it is one of the most important rivers in Sucre. This crosses the Western Cordillera to enter the plains of the department of Córdoba and then go deep into the territory of Sucre, where it finishes its course leading to the delta of the Cauca and Magdalena rivers. The confluence of these three large rivers creates the flood zone of the Momposina Depression.
At this point, also, the San Jorge river connects with the San Marcos swamp. It is important because in Sucre there is a large natural complex of swamps, caused by the hydrographic basins formed by the flows of the Caribbean Sea and the counter currents of Darien. Some of the most well known swamp systems are La Camainera, La Mojanita, La Boquilla and La Panjagua, among many others.
Sucre has multiple climates and geographies that vary the deeper it gets into the territory. There is a climate of humid and dry tropical savannah of the Montes de María mountains, the savannahs and the hollows of the San Jorge and Cauca rivers that cross the department. There is also the arid tropical savannah of the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the tropical rainforest in La Mojana.
These differences result in a warmer climate in the north of the department; and more humid in the south, with rainfall in excess of 3,000 mm per year. The common characteristic of the entire department is that between December and March is usually the dry season with the arrival of the trade winds, while rainfall increases from April to reach its peak between July and September. The average temperature in Sucre ranges between 26ºC and 28ºC.
The amount of marshes and mangroves in Sucre are the perfect ecosystems for multiple species to use them for mating or feeding. The result is an explosion of reptiles, birds, fishes, mammals and crustaceans.
The Camainera swamp, for example, is home of the Antillean manatee, an endangered aquatic mammal. In this department we also find the giant snail, the royal shad or the blue land crab. The latter lives in places like the Sanguaré Natural Reserve
The department's natural lagoons and flooded areas are the perfect habitat for species characteristic of the Caribbean Region, such as the caiman needle, babillas and chigüiros populations.
The park protects the coasts and marine zone of part of Bolívar and another part of Sucre. The largest coral platform of the Colombian Caribbean is located there, with about 420 km2. It is the perfect home for the 62 different species of coral, 153 species of crustaceans, 244 species of mollusks and more than 500 species of fish that inhabit the park. In addition, there are marine grasslands, which are combined with coastal mangrove forests. It is also the natural habitat of three types of sea turtles.
The park has the characteristic of being underwater. The species it protects are primarily deep corals, which are below 100 meters from the sea surface. There have been detected 13 different species of hard corals and 19 species of scleractinian corals, including the species Madracis myriaster, which is considered worldwide as an “odd” habitat since it can be found up to 240 meters deep.
Its sea waters are so clear that there are reefs of unique characteristics that are the habitat of different marine mammals such as the bicolor damselfish. Although the park has no visible land, it is a corridor for migratory birds such as the pine warbler and the brown booby.
Another significant element of the park is that it protects part of the coastal system of the Coral Archipelagos and the Caribbean Oceanic system that extends off the coasts of Sucre, Bolívar, and Córdoba. Almost half of its hectares are within the Archipelago of Rosario and San Bernardo Marine Protected Area.
Founded in 2002, it is the youngest municipality of Sucre and one of the youngest in Colombia. The jewel of its economy is tourism, to which nearly half of the companies in Coveñas are involved. One of its strengths is ecotourism. It is not for nothing that Coveñas is one of the eight municipalities located in the Gulf of Morrosquillo and about a third of its soils are covered by forest.
As the principal Colombian oil port, it is one of the municipalities in the country that receives most royalties from the exploitation of hydrocarbons, and its coasts have been used to export crude oil since 1939. There are other minor economic activities such the raising of cattle and pigs, and the production of poultry and fish.
In Coveñas the 836 kilometers of the subway pipeline are finished and begins the 12 kilometers of the submarine pipeline. The terminal receives all transported volumes and begins the operation of loading the oil tankers for the export of crude oil. It can store 2,800,000 barrels of crude oil of different qualities and its maximum pumping capacity reaches 60 barrels per hour to the TLU2 - tanker loading unit.
The tanker loading unit (TLU-2) or monobuoy is located 12 kilometers from the Coveñas Maritime Terminal. This is where the crude oil is transferred from the pipeline to the oil tankers and it also serves as anchorage for the vessels arriving at the terminal. Half of the monobuoy is static, it remains anchored to land, and the other half, which is observed over the sea, rotates 360 degrees, so that the tankers, already moored, have freedom of movement according to the meteorological and marine conditions. The current monobuoy is new and began its operations in April 2021. It replaced the previous TLU-2, which had 24 years of service.